ICCSAI´s annual Fact Book is an updated and synthetic reference document on competition in the air transport industry of Europe. Special attention is given to the Italian context, although these data are discussed from an international perspective. This work is addressed to all players in the air transport industry. It presents detailed information on demand, supply, industry structure, and regulation policies. Moreover, we draw broad conclusions from these data and identify key questions for future research. We endeavor to approach topics debated in the literature from the standpoint of those who work in the air transport industry as operators or policy makers. For all readers interested in this domain, the Fact Book aims to be not just a reference but a starting point for further reflection. We are keenly aware that even the most exhaustive data collections and best-informed analyses often do not provide simple, clear-cut solutions to the multifarious problems encountered daily by managers and policy-makers. However, we are also convinced that even imperfect data analysis can help by averting those judgments and decisions that stand in glaring contrast with its results.