From 1945-1947, Jewish extremists fought Great Britain in Mandatory Palestine. After the United Nations partitioned Palestine into an Arab state and a Jewish state, the conflict become one between Arabs and Jews, which developed into an Israeli-Arab war after the British left and Israel declared its independence in 1949. The British and Arabs called the disputed territory Palestine, for the Jews it was Eretz-Yisrael; the successive conflicts were all fought over this same territory, which in turn became the backdrop for another highly-significant though little-known struggle. For the International Red Cross, the operation it conducted during the Palestine/Eretz-Yisrael conflict was of the greatest significance. This book reconstructs the strategy of an institution, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), which was under attack at the end of World War II for having failed to help the victims of Nazi concentration camps. Threatened with dissolution by the International Red Cross movement, the ICRC developed its defence, through the elaboration of the Geneva Conventional of 1949 and through the policies behind its activities during the Palestine/Eretz-Yisrael conflict between 1945 and 1952. The text aims to lead the reader to the heart of the endangered institution, uncovering not only the political objectives of its members, as seen in the working of the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and in the statutes of the International Red Cross and its financial decisions, but also the experience of its delegates, thrust into the daily violence of war and who, forged in its institutional culture, tried to apply its criteria to a context where the underlying values and interests were very different from their own.