Nigeria’s ability to safeguard the lives and properties of its citizens and guests, and play a stabilizing role as a regional leader is severely hampered by the alarming rise in the spate of militancy and Insecurity in the country. Prominent among such conflicts was the militancy in its oil rich Niger Delta region. Stemming from agitation by local communities, it evolved from peaceful rallies into an armed insurgency with the youth at the vanguard. The conflict with its resultant effect on Nigeria’s ability to fulfill its obligations as the sixth largest producer of oil in the world was the most prominent discourse in the Niger Delta region and indeed Nigeria’s security circles for the better part of the years under review (1999 – 2010). This book examines the nexus between militancy, proliferation of small arms and light weapons (SALWs) in the Niger Delta region and the general insecurity resulting therefrom. The book posits that militancy in the Niger Delta has a symbiotic relationship with the prevalence of Small Arms and Light Weapons in the region.