Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Poxviruses (members of the family Poxviridae) are viruses that can, as a family, infect both vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Four genera of poxviruses may infect humans: orthopox, parapox, yatapox, molluscipox. Orthopox: variola virus, vaccinia virus, cowpox virus, monkeypox virus, smallpox (eradicated); Parapox: orf virus, pseudocowpox, bovine papular stomatitis virus; Yatapox: tanapox virus, yaba monkey tumor virus; Molluscipox: molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV). The most common are vaccinia (seen on Indian subcontinent) and molluscum contagiousum, but monkeypox infections are rising (seen in west and central African rainforest countries).