This book collects the papers presented during NATO Advanced Research Workshop 'Science and technology of Semiconductor on Insulator (SOI) structures and devices operating in a harsh environment' held in Kiev 26-30 April 2004. The volume contains both reviews from invited speakers and selected papers presenting major innovations in SOI materials and devices. Particular attention is paid to the reliability of SOI structures operated under harsh conditions. In the first part of the book dealing with SOI material technology, the evolution of SOI materials, achievements in the main standard technologies as Smart Cut, SIMOX, porous silicon as well as methods to create more exotic structures are described. The second part of the book covers the reliability aspect of SOI devices operating in a harsh environment: high and low temperatures, high voltages, with a focus on radiation effects and characterization of these devices. Third part of the book overviews novel devices and sensors opportunities for such conditions and the closes with papers discussing the perspectives of SOI scaling to nano devices.