Rome began as a group of villages along Italy’s Tiber River.
About 750 B.C., the villages joined together to form a city
called Rome. It was ruled by kings for more than 200 years.
Eventually, Rome became a republic, and the people elected
representatives. These representatives formed the Senate,
Rome’s most powerful body of government. Each year the
Senate elected two leaders who took charge of the
government and the military
In 27 B.C., Rome became an empire. Caesar’s adopted son
Augustus became the first Roman emperor. He brought
peace and wealth to Rome for 40 years. Rome made great
progress. The army kept peace. Trade increased. Many public
buildings and lighthouses were built.