the structure of the governments, the Diet, and the Bundestag. In our paper we will
answer the following questions: Why can both countries be compared? What historical prerequisites
led to the recent political systems? How do the respective parts of parliaments
and governmental institutions work together? Therefore, we want to concentrate on the
question, where there are similarities in the political procedures and where these ones differ?
Several reasons make both countries comparable. In this regard, our first item gives an
overview over 130 years of a Japanese-German relationship, in which many parallel historical
developments and treaties occurred. A description of the constitutional developments
(item 3) shows that the Japanese Constitution of 1890 adopted general provisions
(especially provisions for the emperor and the parliament) from the German Constitution of
1871. In addition, both postwar Constitutions were strongly influenced by the United
States’ occupation politics, which established a parliamentary democracy in both countries.
All of these are necessary fundamentals to show that both systems can be compared because
of these several similar, historical, and political developments. Our fourth item compares
the parliamentary systems today. Within the concluding remarks we will point out the
differences and the similarities, both systems share or rather divide from each other. Japan and Germany can look back upon 130 years of a more or less deep relationship.
Sure, there are some differences within this old official Japanese-German relationship, and
there are parallels with other states. But despite of all possible relativity, the degree of the
Japanese-German similarity is succinct, and it is possible to discover parallels between
certain historical developments in Japan and developments in Germany. The official relations
began on January, 24th 1861 when the Prussian East Asian Delegation under the Duke
Friedrich zu Eulenburg and the Japanese Shōgunat completed the “Freundschafts-, Handels-,
und Schiffahrtsvertrag” (Friendship, Trade-, and Navigation-Treaty). [...]