- Copertina rigida: 231 pagine
- Editore: Basic Books; 1 edizione (19 gennaio 2012)
- Lingua: Inglese
- ISBN-10: 0465021425
- ISBN-13: 978-0465021420
- Peso di spedizione: 454 g
- Media recensioni: 3.5 su 5 stelle Visualizza tutte le recensioni (2 recensioni clienti)
- Posizione nella classifica Bestseller di Amazon: n. 142.832 in Libri in altre lingue (Visualizza i Top 100 nella categoria Libri in altre lingue)
Too Big to Know: Rethinking Knowledge Now That the Facts Aren't the Facts, Experts Are Everywhere, and the Smartest Person in the Room Is the Room (Inglese) Copertina rigida – 19 gen 2012
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Marc Benioff, chairman, CEO salesforce.com, bestselling author of Behind the Cloud
“Led by the Internet, knowledge is now social, mobile, and open. Weinberger shows how to unlock the benefits.”
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David Weinberger è sicuramente un integrato, come si può anche vedere da questo suo libro. L'assunto di base di Weinberger è che il modello di conoscenza che abbiamo sviluppato nei millenni ora non funziona più, perché "c'è troppa roba" e non sappiamo come distinguere il grano dal loglio. Nema problema, però: la rete stessa ci aiuterà a trovare un nuovo metodo per organizzarci, e lo stiamo già vedendo. È davvero così? Mah. Gli assunti di base sono probabilmente veri, nel senso che nella gerarchia DIKW (data, information, knowledge, wisdom) proposta da Russell Ackoff ora abbiamo mandato in overflow non solo dati e informazioni, ma anche la conoscenza. Anche il dire che la soluzione è nei filtri è condivisibile: peccato però che non si sappia quali possano essere tali filtri - e chi ne avesse probabilmente li manterrebbe più segreti della formula della Coca-Cola - e soprattutto Weinberger non dà risposte chiare: i metadati per esempio aiutano sicuramente i computer a processare l'informazione, ma visto che li dobbiamo creare noi umani il problema viene semplicemente spostato.Ulteriori informazioni ›
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According to Weinberger, most of us tend to think that there are certain individuals — called experts — who are knowledgeable about a certain topic and actually possess knowledge of it. Their knowledge and expertise is thought to be derived from their ability to correctly interpret facts, often through some theoretical lens. Today, like facts, experts too have become ubiquitous. It seems we are actually drowning in a world with too many experts and too many facts, or at least an inability to pick out the true experts and the important facts.
Most of us are appalled, for instance, when we hear the facts about how many people are living in poverty in the United States. However, these facts can be misleading and most people don’t have enough time to think critically about the facts that are hurled at them every day. There might in fact be “X” amount of people living in poverty in the United States, but did you know that someone with a net-worth north of one million dollars can technically be living in poverty? How the government defines poverty is very different than the connotation that many of us have of that word. The amount of income you have is the sole factor used to determine if one is “living in poverty,” but this bit of information seldom accompanies the facts about how many people are “living in poverty.”
I recently posed a question on Facebook asking my subscribers if a fact could be false. To my surprise, there was much disagreement over this seemingly simple question. Weinberger reminds us that facts were once thought to be the antidote to disagreement, but it seems that the more facts are available to us, the more disagreements we seem to have, even if they are meta-factual.
It’s unquestionable that today’s digitally literate class of people have more facts at their fingertips than they know what to do with. Is this, however, leading us any closer to Truth? Well, not necessarily. This is because not all facts are created equal, and not all facts are necessarily true. Facts are statements about objective reality that we believe are true. However, while a fact can be false, truth is such regardless of our interpretation of it — we can know facts, but we can’t necessarily know Truth.
In the book, Weinberger draws an important distinction between classic facts and networked facts. The late U.S. Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan famously said: “Everyone is entitled to his own opinions, but not to his own facts.” What he meant by that was that facts (what Weinberger calls classic facts) were thought to give us a way of settling our disagreements. Networked facts, however, open up into a network of disagreement depending on the context in which they are interpreted. “We have more facts than ever before,” writes Weinberger, “so we can see more convincingly than ever before that facts are not doing the job we hired them for.” This seems to be true even amongst people who use a similar framework and methodology for arriving at their beliefs (e.g., scientists).
One of Weinberger’s central arguments is that the Digital Revolution has allowed us to create a new understanding of what knowledge is and where it resides. Essentially, he claims that the age of experts is over, the facts are no longer the facts (in the classical sense), and knowledge actually resides in our networks. While this is an interesting idea, I’m not sure it’s entirely true.
Knowledge is a strange thing since it depends on the human mind in order to exist. I have a stack of books sitting on my desk, but I don’t point to them and say there is a stack of knowledge sitting on my desk. I simply don’t yet know if there is any knowledge to be gleaned from those books. For this reason, I don’t think knowledge can exist on networks either. Knowledge requires human cognition in order to exist, which means that it only exists in experience, thus giving it this strange ephemeral characteristic. I cannot unload my knowledge and store it anywhere, then retrieve it at a later date. It simply ceases to exist outside of my ability to cognize it.
Knowledge, Weinberger argues, exists in the networks we create, free of cultural and theoretical interpretations. It seems that he is expanding on an idea from Marshall McLuhan, who famously said, “The medium is the message.” Is it possible, then, that knowledge is the medium? The way I interpret his argument, Weinberger seems to be claiming that the medium also shapes what counts as knowledge. Or, as he himself puts it, “transform the medium by which we develop, preserve, and communicate knowledge, and we transform knowledge.” This definition of knowledge is, however, problematic if one agrees that knowledge can only exist in the mind of a human (or comparable) being. To imply that a unified body of knowledge exists “out there” in some objective way and that human cognition isn’t necessary for it to exist undermines any value the term has historically had. Ultimately, I don’t agree with Weinberger’s McLuhanesque interpretation that knowledge has this protean characteristic.
In a recent essay in The Atlantic Nicholas Carr posed the question: “Is Google Making Us Stupid?” His inquiry spawned a fury of questions pertaining to our intelligence and the Net. Although Weinberger has high hopes for what the Net can do for us, he isn’t necessarily overly optimistic either. In fact, he claims that it’s “incontestable that this is a great time to be stupid” too. The debate over whether the Internet makes us smarter or dumber seems silly to me, though. I cannot help but conclude that it makes some people smarter and some people dumber — it all depends on how it is used. Most of us (myself included) naturally like to conjugate in our digital echo chambers and rant about things we think we know (I suspect this is why my provocative “Who Wants to Maintain Clocks?” essay stirred up some controversy — most RS readers don’t usually hear these things in their echo chambers).
Weinberger also argues that having too much information isn’t a problem, but actually a good thing. Again, I disagree. In support of this claim, he piggybacks off of Clay Shirky, who tells us that the ills of information overload are simply filtering problems. I, however, don’t see filtering as a panacea because filtering still requires the valuable commodity of time. At some point, we have to spend more time filtering than we do learning. An aphorism by Nassim Taleb comes to mind: “To bankrupt a fool, give him information.”
Overall, Weinberger does a nice job of discussing the nature of knowledge in the Digital Age, even though I disagree with one of his main points that knowledge exists in a new networked milieu. The book is excellent in the sense that it encourages us to think deeply about the messy nature of epistemology — yes, that’s an opinion and not a fact!
In 1967 twelve academic philosophers formed the "Heidegger Circle" as a closed study group for the German 20th Century philosopher Martin Heidegger. This group had all the advantages of a closed circle: productive work could be done using basic commonly agreed to assumptions, with information exchanged quite probably accurate and ideas advanced well considered. The members were experts on Heidegger. Yet the fact that it was a closed circle insulated them from criticism outside the circle and outsider information that could have helped them to develop and clarify their thinking on a notoriously difficult writer. Well with the Internet the circle became a 4,000 member group that included people who did not really know what they were talking about and could "grind important topics down to dust." Yet the larger group also collectively knew more than the closed circle, challenged older and often incorrect assumptions, and developed new areas of study of this philosopher.
So is this book worth reading? Well it depends on whether or not you want to know what knowledge has become in the age of the Internet and the theories that Weinberger contends explain the transformation of knowledge into a network based phenomenon. The book is an insightful piece of work that will profoundly influence such esoteric subjects as systems thinking and knowledge management.
The book's premise is that the way we have approached knowledge is an unhelpful hangover from a world of scarcity. The filtering mechanisms we use to whittle the world's information down to the very most authoritative knowledge have far more to do with the limited supply of paper and shelf space than the way that knowledge works in the real world. Cluetrain Manifesto co-author Weinberger argues that accepting the inevitability of information overload, and developing mechanisms to filter forward the most relevant, is the only productive way of engaging with the world.
In a Too Big to Know world, curation is replaced by an unbounded network of links: links from assertions to the facts that support them to the sources for those facts. And also, links to the assertions' counterarguments and their networks of facts. He explores the implications of abundant knowledge in in many disciplines: policymaking, science, books, and leadership, to name a few.
As a Knowledge-Centered Support (KCS) advocate, the idea of moving from scarcity to abundance, and from authority to relevance, is satisfying and nearly self-evident...in knowledge bases. And "the world's knowledge is doubling every X years" is a familiar theme. Still, applying these same big ideas to the wider world is unsettling. I'm looking forward to reading this again next year after a little soak time.
As one who's worked in health care as a provider and a collaborator for over 35 years, I've taken the opportunity to read books on many topics, from the basics of health care, to delving into populist books which may not attract other physicians, or at least didn't. (The Tipping Point, Predictably Irrational, Nudge, Theory U, Leadership on the Line, Subliminal, Incognito, The Upside of Irrationality, Nudge, Six Degrees of Separation--the list goes on. and on)
This book is a great discussion of the changing focus of managing (perhaps not the correct term) knowledge in today's world of exploding information and connectivity. As a person who many think is well read, and extremely knowledgeable, I have this underlying anxiety of being a fraud, as I recognize through all my readings that the amount of information/knowledge I've consumed is far less than what I've been exposed to. While many comment on my terrific memory, it's pathetic that in reality, I know very little.
That's why this book is a valuable and worthy tome to peruse....in helping the reader to begin to understand that in today's world, it is "too big to know." We can't use our past experiences and expertise to manage the knowledge now exploding all around us.
Weinberger cleverly and carefully lays out how we need to rethink knowledge--moving from trying to limit what we need to know, to expanding our ability to benefit from the knowledge around us. But for all of those who value their credentials, their expertise, their personal value as one who "has the answers" be aware this will challenge many of your long held beliefs.
I'll not go into detail regarding the content (after all, you need to see it from your perspective), but in my role as Chief Knowledge Officer of a health care collaborative (yes, truly one of the great job titles in health care), I now have a different perspective on what my role should be, the need to consider networks, Internet usage, diversity, and knowledge as actually an attribute of the network, not the nodes of information of any one participant.
I want to thank Weinberger for providing me with another perspective which will greatly enhance my understanding of the challenges faced by us in managing the knowledge needed to improve our world, but for also making me aware of the incredibly complex issues we need to confront. But that's the facts, just the facts...or is it?
The author's exploration of cyberspace and its effect on our future way of life is richly informative. He provides historical background, current events, and examples of the "bottom-up" creativity and problem-solving made possible in the virtual world of electronic IT. This includes old ideas made new, such as "crowd sourcing", and new ideas such "jellies" and "jams" (have to read his book if you don't already know) that are democratizing society was well as providing exciting new capabilities.
Mr. Weinberger masterfully contrasts how and why the on-line electronic world is different from the two previous information ages -- the invention of writing, followed some 5,000 years later by Gutenberg's invention of a moveable-type printing press. The physical ability to record facts and ideas and make them available in other places and other times was one of humankind's very best ideas. However this flash of brilliance was limited by the nature of ancient technology -- writing required physical material that could be written on and also preserved, stored and distributed.
Counting and recording numbers first consisted of tying sequential knots in a long cord. From this act of 're-cording', comes the verb 'to record' and the plural noun 'records', which also gave us literacy and the cottage industry of scribes. As the centuries rolled by, scribes made marks in wet clay, chiseled the history of their civilization in stone, used carbon ink to write on pappyus-reed sheaves, animal skin scrolls, and eventually wood-pulp paper that could be bound into manuscripts and books. Amassed together, these bound treasures of information, imagination and at time great beauty, gave us the institution of libraries.
Locking information up for posterity in bound books is both the extraordinary gift of a physical hard-copy and also its curse. The difficulty and expense of book publishing created a sense of scarcity, that in turn promoted "long-form" writing -- inclusive, sometime exhaustive works that often are already out-of-date before they are published. The finish product is necessarily sequential, starting with page one and going in order to the end. Its contents and the way material is presented was fixed for all eternity on the day it went to the printer.
"Too Big To Know" is the story of the exciting and astonishing shift way from the limitions of paper and hard-copy publishing -- limits that we frequently didn't recognize. For goldfish in a bowl, the water it swims in is invisible. But more important, its entire watery world depends on the container -- a fact so easy to overlook. Likewise, the tradition of hard-copy books is a rigid container for information, one that we don't think of any more than the goldfish ponders the hard-side glass bowl in which it lives.
The electronic technologies of the 20th and 21st century have quietly replaced the finite and expensive technology of 'hard-copy' bound books. These information containers walled off btw to two covers limited us as readers and writers, but equally important, also required cutting down trees and shipping paper (both before and after being printed) cross-country on trucks for distribution.
Liberated from this, the electronic world of the Internet, email, PDFs, cloud storage provides us with a virtually infinite ability to *arrange and rearrange electrons* and shoot them to the far side of the globe before we can stand up to answer the phone.
The full story of "Too Big To Know" is too big to tell in a book review, so you'll have to buy the book. I recommend starting with the mp3 audio version, as this long but fascinating story is the perfect accompaniment for a long commute, or listening while cooking, washing dishes or gardening. It's also a great gift for a geeky friend.